Which of the following contributed to John F. Kennedy’s win in the presidential election of 1960?
The African American Vote and Lyndon Johnson’s strength in the South.
To eradicate poverty and solve most social problems, President Kennedy believed the United States needed to
grow the economy
What did the Warren Commission conclude about the assassination of President Kennedy?
Both Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby had acted alone.
President Lyndon Baines Johnson brought to the White House
enormous skill in persuading and threatening legislators
In the election of 1964,
Lyndon Johnson was elected president in a record-breaking landslide
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 mandated that fundas for education be distributed
based on the number of poor children enrolled in each public school district
The Medicare program provided
universal compulsory insurance for the elderly
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 changed US immigration policy by
abolishing the national-origins quota system
in 1965, President Johnson became the first president to send Congress a special message on
the condition of the environment
What was the end result of Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty?
there was not any significant redistribution of total national income.
Following the enactment of the Medicare and Medicaid programs in the United States
physicians’ fees and hospitals costs escalated dramatically
All in all, major decisions from Warren Court
have withstood the test of time
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
initially organized peaceful demonstrations using civil disobedience
The Congress of Racial Equality organized the Freedom Rides in 1961 to
integrate interstate transportation in the South
The civil rights demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963
ended with the police attacking the peaceful demonstrators.
At a massive civil rights demonstration in the nation’s capital in August 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. gave his famous “I have a Dream” speech.
The Mississippi Freedom Summer Project of 1964
put Northern college students to work helping blacks register to vote.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was
a ban on discrimination, including gender discrimination, in employment
The Voting Rights act of 1965 transformed southern politics by
authorizing the use of federal agents to enforce African Americans’ right to register and vote
Why did President Lyndon Johnson’s affirmative action program provoke more controversy than any other civil rights measures?
Critics argued that it promoted reverse discrimination
The Civil Rights Act of 1968 addressed racial equality
through a ban on discrimination in housing and jury selection
By 1966, the civil rights movement in the United States
was no longer committed to non-violence
By 1966, the principles espoused by Malcolm X had given rise to
the black power movement
When Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4, 1968, he was
supporting a municipal garbage workers’ strike in Memphis
In the 1960’s, the members of Students for a Democratic Society
wanted to mobilize a New Left around the goals of civil rights, peace, and universal economic security.
In 1964, students at the University of California, Berkeley, held a large-scale protest in support of
What factor helped to spark the new wave of feminism in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s
an escalating number of women performing paid jobs in the workplace
In 1966, feminists led by Betty Friedan and others founded
the National Organization for Women
Which of the following is an example of the sweeping change forged by feminists in the 1960s and 1970s?
Passage of the title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972
Stagflation describes an economy that combines
unemployment with inflation
What occurred in 1961 that heightened fears and provided a rationalization for President Kennedy’s military buildup?
Nikita Khruschev publically encouraged wars of national liberation in the third world
The objective of the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961 was to
overthrow Cuban Nationalist Fidel Castro’s socialist government.
Which of the following describes the Bay of pigs invasion
the invasion was an unmitigated disaster…
East Germany erected a wall between East and West Berlin in 1961 to
stop the mass exodus of East Germans to West Berlin…
The Peace Corps was launched by the Kennedy administration in 1961 to
allow young Americans to work directly with people in third world countries…
In response to increased US production of ICBMs and the American nuclear buildup in Europe, the Soviet Union
stepped up its own ICBM program…
Which of the following describes the thirteen-day Cuban missile crisis of 1962?
The incident brought the worlds two superpowers perilously close to nuclear war…
Why, despite $1 billion in aid an seven hundred US military advisers committed by the Eisenhower administration, was the situation in South Vietnam still so unstable when President Kennedy took office?
The South Vietnamese government and army were inaffective, and their corruption and repression alienated their own countrymen…
The NAtional Liberation Front in Vietnam was composed of
South Vietnamese under the direction of the North Vietnamese army
What was the flaw in American officials’ assumption that the US military’s superior technology and power would defeat the communist forces in South Vietnam?
Their advanced weapons were ill suited to the gurilla warfare practiced by those forces…
The purpose of the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was to
authorize the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the forces of the Unites States and to prevent further aggression.
What led Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964?
Unconfirmed information that North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on two U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin
American Military officials began calculating their progress in body counts and kill ratios in Vietnam in 1965 because
it was impossible to measure military success based on territory seized.
The single largest group of US soldiers in Vietnam was made up of
poor and working class Americans.
Of the more than 7,500 American women who served in the Vietnam War,
most served as nurses
In 1965, the first major protest in the United States against the Vietnam War was organized by
Students for a Democratic Society
Which of the following was on of the practical arguments made by protesters against the Vietnam War?
The war could not be won at a bearable cost.
In the peace movement during the Vietnam war, the FBI
disrupted anti-war work and spread false information about activists.
By 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara
left the Johnson Administration because he did not think intensified bombings would ever convince the North Vietnamese to give up.
As a result of the Tet Offensive of January 1968
the Vietcong and North Vietnamese forced attacked key cities and every major American base in South Vietnam.
What made the Tet Offensive an important turning point for President Lyndon Johnson?
It underscored the credibility gap between official statements and the war’s actual progress.
Shortly after peace negotiations for the war in Southeast Asia began in Paris in May 1968,
Senator Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated
How did Candidates Hubert Humphrey and Richard Nixon differ on the central issue of the war in Vietnam in 1968?
They differed little on the central issue of Vietnam
How did President Nixon and his National security adviser, Henry Kissenger, assess the deterioration of Soviet-Chinese relations?
They believed it would reduce the threat the Soviets and Chinese posed to the United States
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) that began in 1969
were initiated by president Nixon, who signed the resulting historic agreement in Moscow in 1972
The Arab nations launched an oil embargo against the United States in 1973 because the Nixon Administration
supported Israel following the Yom Kippur War
From 1969 to 1972, Nixon and Kissenger pursued a four-pronged approach to Vietnam that included
the replacement of U.S. forces with South Vietnamese soldiers and American bombs and technology
President Nixon’s unilateral decision to expand the war in Southeast Asia to Cambodia was designed to
bomb North Vietnamese sanctuaries there
How did Americans respond to President Nixon’s decision to extend the Vietnam war to Cambodia?
They protested, demonstrated, and rioted.
The Pentagon Papers, which became public in 1971, were
a secret government study critical of U.S. policy in Vietnam
What was the final outcome of the Vietnam War in Vietnam itself?
North Vietnam occupied Saigon, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City, and the country unified.
The War Powers Act of 1973 stipulated that
the president had to report to congress within forty-eight hours of deploying military forces abroad.
How did the Theory that a communist victory in South Vietnam would cause all of the Southeast Asia to fall to communism pan out?
The theory proved to be unsound, although Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia all fell within the Communist camp.
The returning veterans of the Vietnam War
felt betrayed by the government for not allowing them to win the war, and by their countrymen for its lack of support.
What 1982 event finally gave Vietnam veterans a measure of public respect for their service?
The Vietnam Veterans memorial was unveiled in Washington D.C.
What was the Ultimate impact of the Vietnam War in the United States?
The Vietnam war contributed to internal disorder and the downfall of two presidents.
Which of the following describes the agenda of the new conservative movement of the 1970’s?
it criticized the governments intrusion into the individuals economic life as a hindrance to prosperity and personal responsibility.
Richard Nixon’s southern strategy for winning the presidential election in 1968 was to
woo white southerners away from the Democratic party
President Nixon saw chief justice Earl Warren’s resignation in 1969 as an opportunity to put a
more conservative justice on the Court.
How did President Nixon respond to the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973
Nixon avoided public comment on the issue
The Watergate scandal that began in 1972 was triggered by
the discovery that Nixon campaign workers had broken into an bugged Democratic Party headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Following the 1972 election, Americans learned that President Nixon and his associates had been guilty of
using unlawful means to silence critics of the Vietnam War
The resignation of Nixon’s Vice President, Spiro Agnew, in 1973 was spurred by
an investigation that revealed he had taken bribes while governor of Maryland.
For what crime did the House Judiciary Committee vote to charge President Nixon as one of the grounds for impeachment?
After President Nixon resigned from office in August 1974, he
was pardoned by president Ford
After President Nixon’s resignation the Democratic Congress aimed to
guard against future abuses of government power
Which of the following factors helped Jimmy Carter win the presidency in 1976?
Carter’s distance from Washington, D.C. politics
Before winning the Presidency, Jimmy Carter’s political experience included
serving as governor of Georgia
To address the Nation’s dependence on foreign oil, President Carter established the
The department of Energy
After the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear facility in 1979
further development of the nuclear power industry was stalled
What calamity led President Carter to sponsor legislation to create the Superfund?
the environmental disaster at Love Canal in Niagra Falls, New York
In 1977, the United States and Panama completed treaties that arranged
Panama’s takeover of the Panama Canal in 2000
President Carter responded to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979
by barring U.S. athletes from participating in the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow.
The American hostages were held in the US Embassy in Teheran by their Iranian captors
Until the day president Carter left office.
What made the election of 1980 so significant?
It revealed conservatives had come to dominate the Republican Party
Before he won the presidency in 1980, Ronald Reagan had been
a well-known actor and then Governor of California
Which of the following factors was a significant part of Ronald Reagan’s appeal to voters?
Reagan’s promise to take government off the backs of the people
Ronald Reagan was often liked even by those who disagreed with his policies because
he was confident, easygoing, and had an optimistic view of America’s past and present.
President Reagan’s initial strategy to fix the lagging US economy was to
introduce a massive tax cut
What was the ultimate result of President Reagan’s two substantial tax cuts?
the tax cuts benefited the wealthy
What was the outcome of the Reagan administration’s decision to deregulate the banking industry?
A crisis in the savings and loan industry occurred, which added burden onto tax payers
President Reagan’s pledge to reduce federal spending resulted in
cuts in spending for social welfare programs.
Ronald Reagan’s appointments to the federal court system tended to favor
a strict construction of the Constitution that limits judicial power
Despite the anti-feminist tone of the Reagan administration, feminists and the administration found common ground in
the collection of court-ordered child support payments for single mothers
During the Reagan years, feminists were successful in
retaining the basic principals of Roe vs. Wade
How did the gay and lesbian rights movement fare during the conservative 1980’s?
Gay and Lesbian rights activism grew during the 1980’s, won some victories, and sparked a strong countermovement
What happened to American defense spending under President Reagan?
It increased beyond the level of spending during the Vietnam War
Which of the following describes President Reagan’s Star Wars initiative?
It surprised Reagan’s advisers and elicited an angry response from critics and the Soviet Union
President Reagan responded to terrorist attacks on Americans around the world by
publicly refused to negotiate with attackers or their sponsors
What was the status of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union at the time President Reagan left office of 1989?
They had reached their highest level of cooperation since World War II
The 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act
required that private businesses be accessible to people with disabilities
George H. W. Bush ultimately abandoned hi no-new-taxes pledge because he
had inherited a huge budget deficit from the Reagan administration
The United States intervened in the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait because
it needed to maintain access to Middle Eastern oil resources.
How did the Soviet Unions respond to the American condemnation of Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait?
It joined in condemning Hussein and cut off arms shipments to Iraq
Which organization authorized the use of force against Iraq if it did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991?
The United Nations
Iraqi president Saddam Hussein announced the withdraw of his troops from Kuwait in the first Gulf War as a result of
crippling air bombardment and the beginning of an all-out ground assault on Iraqi troops.
Which of the following characterizes Operation Desert Storm of 1991?
It was a war that President George H. W. Bush waged with the consent of Congress and widespread American support
One result of the changes Mikhail Gorbachev encouraged in the Soviet Union in the late 1980’s was
East Germany’s opening its border with West Germany
What consequence did the breakup of the Soviet Union have for Mikhail Gorbachev?
He had nothing left to govern and resigned
Which of the following describes 1992 presidential candidate Bill Clinton and his running mat, Al Gore?
They identified as “New Democrats” who wanted to rid the party of its liberal image
Which piece of legislation enabled workers in larger companies to take time off for the birth or adoption of a child, for the care of aging parents, and for family emergencies?
Family and Medical leave act
Bill Clinton’s ambitious plan for health care reform failed early in his presidency because
Liberals and conservatives both opposed it
The congressional elections of 1994 resulted in
Republican majorities in the House and the Senate
Opposition from which group led President Clinton to back away from his campaign promise to lift the ban on homosexuals in the military?
The welfare reform measures passed during the Clinton Presidency
authorized a two-year limit of welfare payments and set a lifetime limit of five years on payments
The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Clinton in 1998 on the grounds of
perjury and obstruction of Justice
Most Americans opposed the impeachment of President Clinton because they
separated the president’s private actions from his public duties
For unskilled and semiskilled workers in the United States, the economic boom of the 1990’s meant
fewer opportunities and lower wages
Why did President Clinton order missile attacks on sites in Afghanistan in the summer of 1998?
He suspected they were the sites of terrorist trainig camps
In a meeting at the White house in September 1993, Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin
agreed to Palestinian recognition of Israel and Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho
At the end of the twentieth century, globalization
was facilitated by new communications technology that linked almost all parts of the World
President Clinton’s trade policies rested on his belief that the economic health of the United States were Latinos and
the free flow of products and capital across national borders
At the end of the Twentieath century, the fastest-growing immigrant groups in the United States were Latinos and
To stop the flow of illegal immagrants coming into the United States in the late twentieth century, Congress passed
the Immigration Reform and Control Act
What characteristic made the majority of post-1965 immigrants to the United States much like their nineteenth-century predecessors?
The majority of immigrants were unskilled and poor
In the presidential election of 2000
George W. Bush won the electoral college vote
What finally decided the outcome of the 2000 presidential race between Al Gore and George W. Bush?
A ruling by the U. S. supreme court
The purpose of the two tax bills that President George W. Bush signed after taking office in 2001 was to
cut taxes significantly
President George W. Bush’s No Child Left Behind Act
lacked adequate funding for implementation
What motivated Al Qaeda’s attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001?
Al Qaeda’s wish to rid the Middle East of Western influences
The purpose of the USA Patriot Act of 2001 was to
suspend certain civil liberties and protections
Which of the following represents President George Bush’s policies of unilateralism and preemption?
Bush’s resolution to invade Iraq in March 2003
After the March 2003 invasion of Iraq,
George Bush and his advisers were unprepared for the subsequent social and political chaos in Iraq
What was the outcome of the presidential election of 2004?
George W. Bush beat John Kerry by a slim margin in both the electoral college and the popular vote
The Democratic presidential primaries in 2008 came down to a tight race between
Barack Obama and Hilary Rodham Clinton
Which piece of legislation represented the largest expansion of government since the Great Society?
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
The conservative grassroots movement that articulated the opinions and rage of many mostly older and white voters in 2008 and beyond was called
The Tea Party
The Clinton administration ended its eight year term in office with
a federal budget surplus and the longest economic boom in History.